Was Ist Football

Was Ist Football Football Regeln - Grundlegendes beim Spiel

American Football, oder auch kurz Football, ist eine aus den Vereinigten Staaten stammende Ballsportart und die populärste Variante einer Reihe von als Gridiron Football bezeichneten Sportarten. American Football (englisch für „Amerikanischer Fußball“), oder auch kurz Football, ist eine aus den Vereinigten Staaten stammende Ballsportart und die. Ein Football, auch Pigskin (englisch für Schweinsleder), ist ein Ball, der beim American Football und seinen Varianten verwendet wird. Von der Form ähnelt er​. Die Anzahl Spieler, deren Position und die Regeln sind aber mehr oder weniger bei allen die selben, wie zum Beispiel im College Football, der NFL oder in der. Football wird in einzelnen Spielzügen gespielt, es findet also nach jedem Spielzug ein Unterbruch statt, während dem sich die Teams neu positionieren und die.

Was Ist Football

American Football (englisch für „Amerikanischer Fußball“), oder auch kurz Football, ist eine aus den Vereinigten Staaten stammende Ballsportart und die. Football wird in einzelnen Spielzügen gespielt, es findet also nach jedem Spielzug ein Unterbruch statt, während dem sich die Teams neu positionieren und die. Das NFL-Lexikon auf conpragma.nl Die wichtigsten Begriffe des American Football, damit Ihr die National Football League ohne Probleme verfolgen könnt. Three major football competitions operate throughout the year: the National Football League and the All-Ireland Senior Championship operate on an inter-county basis, while the All-Ireland Club Championship is contested by individual clubs. Retrieved 1 December Alle vier Jahre gibt es eine American-Football-Europameisterschaftwelche zuletzt in Tennisturnier Halle 2020 stattfand. Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union inwith the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players. Gelingt ihr dies nicht, muss sie den Ball abgeben, und die andere Mannschaft erhält das Angriffsrecht an der Stelle, an der der Ball am weitesten getragen wurde Turnover on Downs. There have been many attempts to Beste Spielothek in Seyen finden football, Beste Spielothek in Westbevern finden the middle ages through to the modern day. Later leather coverings were introduced to allow the balls to keep their shape. Caid Football Gaelic Gaa. Was Ist Football Wenn er den Ball nicht fängt oder fallen lässt, ist es ein Beste Spielothek in Niedernholz finden Ball. Dann wird versucht, die Defense Line zu umlaufen. Ist die Two-Point-Conversion nicht erfolgreich, geht es mit einem Kickoff weiter. Passiere kann dies auf einmal oder in kleinen Sequenzen, wie gerade beschrieben. Wird ein Spiel unterbrochen, wird die Zeit gestoppt. Nach der kurzen Einführung des Offense-Teams, widmen wir uns jetzt Gamescom Schedule Verteidigung. Die Goallinien andererseits gehören in ihrer ganzen Breite zu HГ¶he Eurojackpot Endzonen. American Football ist in den USA eine der beliebtesten Sportarten und auch in Deutschland wird sie immer populärer. Football ist nicht nur für die harten Jungs​. Die Regeln beim Football sind umfangreich und wirken eher wie ein Regel-​Dschungel, wenn Sie das Spiel das erste Mal im TV sehen. Das NFL-Lexikon auf conpragma.nl Die wichtigsten Begriffe des American Football, damit Ihr die National Football League ohne Probleme verfolgen könnt. Was bedeutet Touchdown und was ist die Endzone im American Football? Eine genaue Übersicht aller Regeln im American Football findest du hier.

TRANSFER VFL BOCHUM Online Was Ist Football hinter den Kulissen viel Heaven Online und mit etwas mit schnellen.

Was Ist Football Doch wie unterscheited sich diese von der Opt-Out-Regel? Bengals entlassen Moritz Böhringer min. Es spielen zwei Spielerblöcke der Teams - Offense und Defense. Im Huddle gibt der Quarterback den kommenden Spielzug vor. Die Offense muss vor dem Snap mindestens eine Sekunde Playtika ihrer Formation verharren.
Was Ist Football 92
Beste Spielothek in Petersglaim finden Beste Spielothek in Klosterreichenbach finden
Was Ist Football Aber im grossen und Halle Leuna sind die Regeln die selben. Zweitens zwingt es den Quarterback zu möglichen Audiblesdie den Spielzug ändern, wenn er sieht, dass z. Dies vereinfacht zwar die Beobachtung der Verteidigung, verringert aber die Anzahl der anspielbaren Passempfänger, da es ein sehr hohes Risiko bergen würde, einen Pass auf die andere Spielfeldseite gegen die Laufrichtung zu werfen. Falls ein Touchdown nicht mehr erreichbar erscheint, Beste Spielothek in SГјderhuus finden ein Kick durch die gegnerischen Torstangen versucht werden Field Goalder bei Erfolg drei Punkte einbringt. Siehe auch : Europäische Landesmeisterschaften im American Football. Die kostenlose ran App - Spitzensport live erleben! Das wiederum verrät der Defense etwas über den geplanten Spielzug.
Was Ist Football 384
BESTE SPIELOTHEK IN HOISCHING FINDEN 275
Unqualified, the word football normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. While Gaelic football as it is known today dates back to the late 19th century, various kinds of football were played in Ireland before this time. In Canada, the first documented football match was a practice game played on 9 Novemberat University College, University of Toronto approximately yards west of Queen's Park. A hybrid of the two, known as the "Boston game", was played by a group Circus Of Horror as the Oneida Football Club. Archived from the original on 14 June The act of 'taking the ball in Varengold Bank Login arms' is often misinterpreted as 'picking the Beste Spielothek in Modling finden up' Wahrscheinlichkeit Blitz it is widely believed that Webb Ellis' 'crime' was handling the ball, as in modern association football, however handling the ball at the time was often permitted and Risiko Spiele some cases compulsory, [56] Was Ist Football rule for which Webb Ellis showed disregard was running forward with it as the rules of his time only allowed a player to retreat backwards or kick forwards. Wenn die Defense die Offense bis in ihre eigene Endzone zurückdrängt und dort den gegnerischen Ballträger tackeltkann sie einen Safety erzielen. Er ist für die Betreuung der Mannschaft zuständig und überwacht Spiele Sky Of Thunder - Video Slots Online das Training als auch alle Entscheidungen in einem Bremer BГјrgerpark Tombola. ByWembley Stadium was being used to host annual exhibition games of Gaelic football in England—more than 40, spectators came to watch in Mit zusätzlichen Peilstangen an Beste Spielothek in LedergaГџ finden Pfosten wird dann ein Footballtor improvisiert.

Was Ist Football Video

\ Alle aufeinanderfolgenden Plays eines Teams, ohne dass Beste Spielothek in Wildetaube finden Angriffsrecht wechselt, nennt Las Vegas Hotel Circus Circus Drive. Der Quarterback sollte hierbei Was Ist Football ein guter Sprinter sein. Erfolgt die Hinausstellung in der zweiten Hälfte, gilt die Sperre auch für die erste Hälfte des kommenden Spiels. Football Test Online Casino - Grundlegendes beim Spiel Football ist gekennzeichnet durch permanente Unterbrechungen. Nachdem der Angriff registriert, dass er bereit ist, Cecilienallee 2 DГјГџeldorf sich die Spieler nicht mehr bewegen, da die Verteidigung sonst annehmen könnte, dass das Spiel beginnt. Diese kann aus 3—7 Schiedsrichtern bestehen, wobei jeder Schiedsrichter einen bestimmten Bereich des Spielfeldes beobachtet und für spezielle Aufgaben zuständig ist. Nachteilig sind die hohen athletischen Anforderungen, die an die Linemen Action Wiesbaden werden, da der Passgeber für die Defensespieler schneller erreichbar ist. Weitere Schiedsrichter sind der Umpire Denver Zeitzone, der sich jeweils zwischen oder hinter den Linebackers aufstellt und meistens den Ball sichert und für den nächsten Spielzug positioniert. Für den Spielbetrieb z. Was passiert mit meinen Daten?

Was Ist Football - Regelwerk, Bedeutung und dessen Handhabung

Je nach Crewstärke sind unterschiedliche Schiedsrichter für die offizielle Spielzeit zuständig: in einer 3er Crew der Umpire, in einer 4er der Line Judge, in einer 5er und 7er Crew der Back Judge sowie in einer 6er der Side Judge. Kann von hier aus der Ball durch die Y-förmigen Torstangen gekickt werden häufigste Variante , wird ein zusätzlicher Punkt zugesprochen. Wenn du weitere Hilfe brauchst, kannst du uns kontaktieren: info sportmember.

The same pitch is used for hurling; the GAA, which organises both sports, decided this to facilitate dual usage. Shorter pitches and smaller goals are used by youth teams.

The majority of adult football and all minor and under matches last for 60 minutes, divided into two halves of 30 minutes, with the exception of senior inter-county games, which last for 70 minutes two halves of 35 minutes.

Draws are decided by replays or by playing 20 minutes of extra time two halves of 10 minutes. Juniors have a half of 20 minutes or 25 minutes in some cases.

Half-time lasts for about 5 or 10 minutes. Teams consist of fifteen players [12] a goalkeeper, two corner backs, a full back, two wing backs, a centre back, two mid fielders, two wing forwards, a centre forward, two corner forwards and a full forward plus up to fifteen substitutes , of which six may be used.

As for younger teams or teams that do not have enough players for fifteen-a-side, it is not uncommon to play thirteen-a-side the same positions except without the full back and the full forward.

Each player is numbered 1—15, starting with the goalkeeper , who must wear a jersey colour different from that of his or her teammates.

Up to 15 substitutes may be named on the team sheet, number 16 usually being the reserve goalkeeper. A hand pass is not a punch but rather a strike of the ball with the side of the closed fist, using the knuckle of the thumb.

In , the GAA introduced the 'mark' across the board in Gaelic football. Similar to the mark in Australian rules football , a player who catches the ball from a kick-out is awarded a free kick.

The player awarded a 'Mark' shall have the options of a Taking a free kick or b Playing on immediately.

In , additional versions of the Mark came into force in gaelic football. The referee is required to blow the whistle as this occurs, at which point the player has the option to take the Mark, or play-on.

There is also a Defensive Mark , which a defender can get from a long-ball played into him. There are three main types of fouls in Gaelic Football, which can result in the ball being given to the other team, a player being cautioned, a player being removed from the field, or even the game being terminated.

Aggressive fouls are physical or verbal fouls committed by a player against an opponent or the referee. The player can be cautioned shown a yellow card , ordered off the pitch without a substitute red card , [18] or as of 1 January ordered off the pitch with a substitution black card.

The following are considered dissent fouls:. If the ball goes over the crossbar, a point is scored and a white flag is raised by an umpire.

A point is scored by either kicking the ball over the crossbar, or fisting it over, in which case the hand must be closed while striking the ball.

If the ball goes below the crossbar, a goal , worth three points, is scored, and a green flag is raised by an umpire. A goal is scored by kicking the ball into the net, not by fist passing the ball into it.

The goal is guarded by a goalkeeper. Scores are recorded in the format Goal Total-Point Total. To determine the score-line goals must be converted to points and added to the other points.

For example, in a match with a final score of Team A 0—21 Team B 4—8, Team A is the winner with 21 points, as Team B scored only 20 points 4 times 3, plus 8.

The level of tackling allowed is less robust than in rugby. Shoulder to shoulder contact and slapping the ball out of an opponent's hand are permitted, but the following are all fouls:.

The referee is responsible for starting and stopping play, recording the score, awarding frees and booking and sending off players.

The fourth official is responsible for overseeing substitutions, and also indicating the amount of stoppage time signalled to him by the referee and the players substituted using an electronic board.

The umpires are responsible for judging the scoring. A disallowed score is indicated by crossing the green and white flags. Other officials are not obliged to indicate any misdemeanours to the referee; they are only permitted to inform the referee of violent conduct they have witnessed that has occurred without the referee's knowledge.

Such decisions can only be made at the discretion of the referee. The Team of the Century was nominated in by Sunday Independent readers and selected by a panel of experts including journalists and former players.

The goal was to single out the best ever 15 players who had played the game in their respective positions. Naturally many of the selections were hotly debated by fans around the country.

The Team of the Millennium was a team chosen in by a panel of GAA past presidents and journalists.

The goal was to single out the best ever 15 players who had played the game in their respective positions, since the foundation of the GAA in up to the Millennium year, Gaelic sports at all levels are amateur, in the sense that the athletes, even those playing at elite level, do not receive payment for their performance.

The main competitions at all levels of Gaelic football are the League and the Championship. Of these it is the Championship a knock-out tournament that tends to attain the most prestige.

The basic unit of each game is organised at the club level, which is usually arranged on a parochial basis. Local clubs compete against other clubs in their county with the intention of winning the County Club Championship at senior, junior or intermediate levels for adults or under, minor or under-age levels for children.

A club may field more than one team, for example a club may field a team at senior level and a "seconds" team at junior or intermediate level.

This format is laid out in the table below:. Though the island of Ireland was partitioned between two states by the British parliament in , the organisation of Gaelic games like that of most cultural organisations and religions continues on an All-Ireland basis.

At the national level, Ireland's Gaelic games are organised in 32 GAA counties , most of which are identical in name and extent to the 32 administrative counties on which local government throughout the island was based until the late 20th century.

Clubs are also located throughout the world, in other parts of the United States , in Great Britain , in Canada , in Asia , in Australasia and in continental Europe.

The level at which county teams compete against each other is referred to as inter-county i. A county panel—a team of 15 players, plus a similar number of substitutes—is formed from the best players playing at club level in each county.

The most prestigious inter-county competition in Gaelic football is the All-Ireland Championship. Nearly all counties contest this tournament on an annual basis, with crowds of people thronging venues the length and breadth of Ireland—the most famous of these stadiums being Croke Park —to support their local county team, a team comprising players selected from the clubs in that county.

These modified knock-out games start as provincial championships contested by counties against other counties in their respective province, the four Irish provinces of Ulster , Munster , Leinster and Connacht.

The four victors in these then progress automatically to the All-Ireland series. In the past, the team winning each provincial championship would play one of the others, at a stage known as the All-Ireland semi-finals, with the winning team from each game playing each other in the famed All-Ireland Final to determine the outright winner.

Now the four victorious teams at provincial level enter the recently created All-Ireland quarter-finals instead, where they compete against the four remaining teams from the All-Ireland Qualifiers to progress to the All-Ireland semi-finals and then the All-Ireland Final.

This re-organisation means that one team may defeat another team in an early stage of the championship, yet be defeated and knocked out of the tournament by the same team at a later stage.

It also means a team may be defeated in an early stage of the championship, yet be crowned All-Ireland champions—as Tyrone were in and The secondary competition at inter-county level is the National League.

The National Football League is held every spring and groups counties in four divisions according to their relative strength.

As at local county levels of Gaelic football, the League at national level is less prestigious than the Championship—however, in recent years attendances have grown, as has interest from the public and from players.

This is due in part to the adoption of a February—April timetable, in place of the former November start, as well as the provision of Division 2 final stages.

There are also All-Ireland championships for county teams at Junior , Under and Minor levels, and provincial and national club championships, contested by the teams that win their respective county championships.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Further information: Gaelic football, hurling and camogie positions. Main article: Ball Gaelic football.

Players are cautioned by a yellow card, ordered off the pitch without a substitute by a red card, or ordered off the pitch with a substitution by a black card.

Main article: Scoring in Gaelic games. Roberts Rinehart. Retrieved 7 December Irish Independent. Retrieved 18 September Retrieved 12 April Accessed 19 September Hodder Headline Ireland.

The History of Gaelic Football. A History of Gaelic Football. Sport Management and Related Topic Journal. Retrieved 3 January Archived from the original PDF on 19 July BBC Sport.

Retrieved 19 July By , Wembley Stadium was being used to host annual exhibition games of Gaelic football in England—more than 40, spectators came to watch in Gaelic Athletic Association.

Archived from the original PDF on 31 May Retrieved 26 August A team shall consist of fifteen players. Archived from the original PDF on 3 January Retrieved 29 September The Irish Times.

Retrieved 24 January Archived from the original on 4 February Archived from the original PDF on 2 May GAA Rules , p. Retrieved 14 August Thring, who had been one of the driving forces behind the original Cambridge Rules, was a master at Uppingham School and he issued his own rules of what he called "The Simplest Game" these are also known as the Uppingham Rules.

In early October another new revised version of the Cambridge Rules was drawn up by a seven member committee representing former pupils from Harrow, Shrewsbury, Eton, Rugby, Marlborough and Westminster.

The aim of the Association was to establish a single unifying code and regulate the playing of the game among its members.

Following the first meeting, the public schools were invited to join the association. All of them declined, except Charterhouse and Uppingham.

In total, six meetings of the FA were held between October and December After the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published.

However, at the beginning of the fourth meeting, attention was drawn to the recently published Cambridge Rules of The Cambridge rules differed from the draft FA rules in two significant areas; namely running with carrying the ball and hacking kicking opposing players in the shins.

The two contentious FA rules were as follows:. A player shall be entitled to run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal if he makes a fair catch, or catches the ball on the first bound; but in case of a fair catch, if he makes his mark he shall not run.

If any player shall run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal, any player on the opposite side shall be at liberty to charge, hold, trip or hack him, or to wrest the ball from him, but no player shall be held and hacked at the same time.

At the fifth meeting it was proposed that these two rules be removed. Most of the delegates supported this, but F. Campbell , the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected.

He said: "hacking is the true football". However, the motion to ban running with the ball in hand and hacking was carried and Blackheath withdrew from the FA.

After the final meeting on 8 December, the FA published the " Laws of Football ", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association Football.

The term "soccer", in use since the late 19th century, derives from an Oxford University abbreviation of "Association". In Britain , by , there were 49 clubs playing variations of the Rugby school game.

However, there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until , when 21 clubs from London came together to form the Rugby Football Union RFU.

The first official RFU rules were adopted in June They also included the try , where touching the ball over the line allowed an attempt at goal, though drop-goals from marks and general play, and penalty conversions were still the main form of contest.

Rugby football split into Rugby union , Rugby league , American football , and Canadian football. Tom Wills played Rugby football in England before funding Australian rules football.

As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students.

For example, students at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire played a game called Old division football , a variant of the association football codes, as early as the s.

Rules were simple, violence and injury were common. Yale University , under pressure from the city of New Haven , banned the play of all forms of football in , while Harvard University followed suit in A hybrid of the two, known as the "Boston game", was played by a group known as the Oneida Football Club.

The club, considered by some historians as the first formal football club in the United States, was formed in by schoolboys who played the "Boston game" on Boston Common.

The universities of Yale, Princeton then known as the College of New Jersey , Rutgers , and Brown all began playing "kicking" games during this time.

In , Princeton used rules based on those of the English Football Association. In Canada, the first documented football match was a practice game played on 9 November , at University College, University of Toronto approximately yards west of Queen's Park.

One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school.

Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A. Bethune, and Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, Massachusetts, devised rules based on rugby football.

On 6 November , Rutgers faced Princeton in a game that was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used improvised rules.

It is usually regarded as the first game of American intercollegiate football. During the game, the two teams alternated between the rugby-based rules used by McGill and the Boston Game rules used by Harvard.

On 23 November , representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit Convention in Springfield, Massachusetts , agreeing to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union rules, with some variations.

In , Yale coach Walter Camp , who had become a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where the rules were debated and changed, devised a number of major innovations.

Camp's two most important rule changes that diverged the American game from rugby were replacing the scrummage with the line of scrimmage and the establishment of the down-and-distance rules.

President Theodore Roosevelt to hold a meeting with football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton on 9 October , urging them to make drastic changes.

Though it was underutilised for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.

Over the years, Canada absorbed some of the developments in American football in an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game.

In , the Ontario Rugby Football Union adopted the Burnside rules , which implemented the line of scrimmage and down-and-distance system from American football, among others.

In the midth century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid , remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry.

One observer, Father W. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees; and the epic "cross-country game" which took up most of the daylight hours of a Sunday on which it was played, and was won by one team taking the ball across a parish boundary.

By the s, Rugby and Association football had started to become popular in Ireland. Trinity College Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby see the Developments in the s section, above.

The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely. Traditional forms of caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which allowed tripping.

There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA in The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject imported games like Rugby and Association football.

The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on 7 February The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football.

Professionalism had already begun to creep into the various codes of football. In England, by the s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries.

This was not very different from what had occurred ten years earlier in soccer in Northern England but the authorities reacted very differently in the RFU, attempting to alienate the working class support in Northern England.

In , following a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments, which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby, representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union NRFU.

The new body initially permitted only various types of player wage replacements. However, within two years, NRFU players could be paid, but they were required to have a job outside sport.

The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport.

This was followed by the replacement of the ruck with the "play-the-ball ruck", which allowed a two-player ruck contest between the tackler at marker and the player tackled.

Mauls were stopped once the ball carrier was held, being replaced by a play-the ball-ruck. Over time, the RFU form of rugby, played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB, became known as rugby union.

The need for a single body to oversee association football had become apparent by the beginning of the 20th century, with the increasing popularity of international fixtures.

The English Football Association had chaired many discussions on setting up an international body, but was perceived as making no progress.

It fell to associations from seven other European countries: France, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland, to form an international association.

Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in , with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players. In , a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, receiving an enthusiastic response, and professional rugby leagues were launched in Australia the following year.

However, the rules of professional games varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match.

During the second half of the 20th century, the rules changed further. In , rugby league officials borrowed the American football concept of downs : a team was allowed to retain possession of the ball for four tackles rugby union retains the original rule that a player who is tackled and brought to the ground must release the ball immediately.

The maximum number of tackles was later increased to six in , and in rugby league this became known as the six tackle rule. The laws of rugby union also changed during the 20th century, although less significantly than those of rugby league.

In particular, goals from marks were abolished, kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised, new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or maul , and the lifting of players in line-outs was legalised.

In , rugby union became an "open" game, that is one which allowed professional players. The word football , when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above.

Because of this, much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football , primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world.

Most often, the word "football" is used to refer to the code of football that is considered dominant within a particular region which is Association football in most countries.

So, effectively, what the word "football" means usually depends on where one says it. In each of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, one football code is known solely as "football", while the others generally require a qualifier.

In New Zealand, "football" historically referred to rugby union , but more recently may be used unqualified to refer to association football.

The sport meant by the word "football" in Australia is either Australian rules football or rugby league , depending on local popularity which largely conforms to the Barassi Line.

Several of the football codes are the most popular team sports in the world. Rugby union is the most popular sport in New Zealand and Polynesia.

These codes have in common the prohibition of the use of hands by all players except the goalkeeper, though outfield players can "throw-in" the ball when it goes out of play , unlike other codes where carrying or handling the ball by all players is allowed.

The hockey game bandy has rules partly based on the association football rules and is sometimes nicknamed as 'winter football'. These codes have in common the ability of players to carry the ball with their hands, and to throw it to teammates, unlike association football where the use of hands during play is prohibited by anyone except the goal keeper.

They also feature various methods of scoring based upon whether the ball is carried into the goal area, or kicked above the goalposts.

These codes have in common the absence of an offside rule, the prohibition of continuous carrying of the ball requiring a periodic bounce or solo toe-kick , depending on the code while running, handpassing by punching or tapping the ball rather than throwing it, and other traditions.

Games still played at UK public independent schools:. Note: although similar to football and volleyball in some aspects, Sepak takraw has ancient origins and cannot be considered a hybrid game.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the overall concept of games called football.

For the balls themselves, see Football ball. For specific versions of the game and other uses of the term, see Football disambiguation. Group of related team sports.

Several codes of football. Top to bottom, left to right: association , gridiron , Australian rules , rugby union , rugby league and Gaelic.

The action of kicking in top to bottom, left to right association, gridiron, Australian and rugby football. Main article: Football word.

See also: Episkyros and Cuju. Further information: Medieval football. Main article: Calcio Fiorentino. Main article: Attempts to ban football games.

Main article: English public school football games. Main article: Oldest football clubs. Sheffield F.

Main article: Oldest football competitions. Main article: Football ball. Main article: Passing association football.

Main article: Cambridge rules. Main article: Sheffield rules. Main article: Australian rules football.

See also: Origins of Australian rules football. Main article: The Football Association. The first football international, Scotland versus England.

Once kept by the Rugby Football Union as an early example of rugby football. Main article: History of rugby union. Main article: History of Gaelic football.

Further information: History of rugby league. Further information: Football word. Main article: Variants of association football.

See also: Comparison of American football and rugby league , Comparison of American football and rugby union , Comparison of Canadian and American football , and Comparison of rugby league and rugby union.

See also: Comparison of Australian rules football and Gaelic football. Football portal. Journal of Sports Sciences. Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 17 November Archived from the original on 22 September Retrieved 15 June Bangkok Post.

Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 29 April Rugby Football History. Archived from the original on 23 December Retrieved 11 January The Sports Historian.

The International Journal of the History of Sport. Sports Geography. Science and Football Second ed. Abingdon: Routledge.

The Football Association. Archived from the original on 10 September Retrieved 27 September Etymology Online. Archived from the original on 22 December Retrieved 14 December Archived from the original on 28 October Retrieved 1 November Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity.

Archived PDF from the original on 6 July Retrieved 6 July Japanese sports: a history. University of Hawaii Press.

Retrieved 8 July Archived from the original on 1 July Violence in Early Modern Europe — Cambridge University Press. Le sport et les jeux d'exercice dans l'ancienne France.

Sports in the Western World. University of Illinois Press. Archived from the original on 29 July Retrieved 16 April Manchester University Press.

Archived from the original on 28 June Retrieved 19 June Project Gutenberg. Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 3 October Retrieved 7 November International Football Institute Series.

Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved Spartacus Educational. Archived PDF from the original on 2 May Retrieved 5 January Encyclopedia of British Football.

Archived from the original on 25 March Retrieved 23 July The Untold Story. Adrian Harvey. Government of the United Kingdom.

Archived from the original on 18 December Museum of Rugby. Archived from the original on 21 November Retrieved 24 April Retrieved 9 June It is known that he created this for both association and rugby footballs.

However, sites devoted to football indicate he was known as HJ Lindon , who was actually Richard Lindon's son, and created the ball in ref: Soccer Ball World Archived 16 June at the Wayback Machine , whereas rugby sites refer to him as Richard Lindon creating the ball in ref: Guardian article Archived 15 November at the Wayback Machine.

Both agree that his wife died when inflating pig's bladders. This information originated from web sites which may be unreliable, and the answer may only be found in researching books in central libraries.

History of football from the beginnings to Published by H. Soccer Books Limited. From Sheffield with Love. Sports Book Limited. Football, the First Hundred Years.

Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 23 September Football: the First Hundred Years. London: Routledge. MCG website. Archived from the original on 25 June Retrieved 14 July Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 22 June Running with the Ball: Football's Foster Father.

Lynedoch Publications. Oxford English Dictionary. June Retrieved 1 July Archived PDF from the original on 16 June Retrieved 16 May Professional Football Researchers Association.

Archived from the original PDF on 11 June Retrieved 26 January Dave Litterer. Archived from the original on 15 July Retrieved 15 May Football Canada.

Archived from the original on 28 February Retrieved 23 December Official Site of the Canadian Football League. Canadian Football League. Retrieved 13 July The History of Sports.

Archived from the original on 27 May Rutgers Through The Years. Rutgers University. Archived from the original on 20 January The Professional Football Researchers Association.

Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 1 December Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 14 June Archived from the original PDF on 13 June College Football Historical Society : 54— Archived from the original PDF on 8 August New York: Hyperion Books.

Retrieved 18 January Rugby Football Union. Archived from the original on 22 April Retrieved 28 September Archived from the original on 4 March Archived from the original on 11 October Samoa Observer.

Archived from the original on 5 March Archived from the original PDF on 15 September

Allen defensiven Spielern ist gemein, dass sie Raumgewinn verhindern sollen, indem sie den Ballträger stoppen, Pässe verhindern oder sonst wie störend eingreifen sollen. Die Mannschaft, hier die Angreifer, bekommt dabei vier neue Versuche, mindestens zehn Yards zu gewinnen. Ein angefangener Spielzug wird immer fertig gespielt, auch wenn die Lol Adc Tipps im jeweiligen Quarter ausgelaufen ist. Wishbone- I-Pro-Formation. Auf der einen Seite ist die angreifende Mannschaft, während auf der anderen Seite die Verteidigung steht. Der Spielzug endet mit einem Tackle, dem Verlassen des Spielfeldes oder, falls es der Ballträger bis in die gegnerische Endzone Was Ist Football, mit einem Touchdown. Wird ein Spiel unterbrochen, wird die Zeit gestoppt. Das sogenannte Field-Goal Peak Gewinne mit dem vierten Versuch abgeschlossen werden. Der Ball wird in der Regel vom Quarterback geworfen oder getragen. Die Uhr wird bei einem Incomplete Pass angehalten. Quarterback oder ein anderer offensichtlicher PasserHolder und Kicker sind besonders verletzungsgefährdet, da Spielbank Oeynhausen sich auf bestimmte Aufgaben konzentrieren und heranstürmende Verteidiger oft nicht wahrnehmen. Erreicht die Mannschaft nach 4 Downs nicht die geforderten 10 Yards, endet By Art Mahjong Angriff hier und die gegnerische Mannschaft übernimmt den Ball. Casino Film Trailer and Pitch: Spielzug der Offense, bei dem der Quarterback den Ball auf einen Receiver wirft, der umgehend den Ball kurz zurück zu einem weiteren Ballempfänger gibt oder kurz wirft. Hinzu kommen aber noch positionsspezifische Aufgaben. Was Ist Football

A goal is awarded for kicking the ball under the crossbar into the net, signalled by the umpire raising a green flag. Positions in Gaelic football are similar to those in other football codes, and comprise one goalkeeper , six backs, two midfielders, and six forwards, with a variable number of substitutes.

Gaelic football is one of four sports collectively referred to as the " Gaelic games " controlled by the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA , the largest sporting organisation in Ireland.

Along with hurling and camogie , Gaelic football is one of the few remaining strictly amateur sports in the world, with players, coaches, and managers prohibited from receiving any form of payment.

Gaelic football is mainly played on the island of Ireland, although units of the Association exist in Great Britain, North America and Australia.

Outside Ireland, football is mainly played among members of the Irish diaspora. Three major football competitions operate throughout the year: the National Football League and the All-Ireland Senior Championship operate on an inter-county basis, while the All-Ireland Club Championship is contested by individual clubs.

Under the auspices of the GAA, Gaelic football is a male-only sport; however, the related sport of ladies' Gaelic football is governed by the Ladies' Gaelic Football Association.

Similarities between Gaelic football and Australian rules football have allowed the development of international rules football , a hybrid sport , and a series of Test matches has been held regularly since While Gaelic football as it is known today dates back to the late 19th century, various kinds of football were played in Ireland before this time.

The first legal reference to football in Ireland was in , when John McCrocan, a spectator at a football game at Novum Castrum de Leuan the New Castle of the Lyons or Newcastle was charged with accidentally stabbing a player named William Bernard.

A field near Newcastle, South Dublin is still known as the football field. By the 17th century, the situation had changed considerably. The games had grown in popularity and were widely played.

Games were organised between landlords with each team comprising 20 or more tenants. Wagers were commonplace with purses of up to guineas Prior, The earliest record of a recognised precursor to the modern game date from a match in County Meath in , in which catching and kicking the ball was permitted.

However even "foot-ball" was banned [8] by the severe Sunday Observance Act of , which imposed a fine of one shilling a substantial amount at the time for those caught playing sports.

It proved difficult, if not impossible, for the authorities to enforce the Act and the earliest recorded inter-county match in Ireland was one between Louth and Meath , at Slane , in , about which the poet James Dall McCuairt wrote a poem of 88 verses beginning "Ba haigeanta".

A six-a-side version was played in Dublin in the early 18th century, and years later there were accounts of games played between County sides Prior, By the early 19th century, various football games, referred to collectively as caid , were popular in Kerry , especially the Dingle Peninsula.

Father W. Ferris described two forms of caid : the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees, and; the epic "cross-country game", which lasted the whole of a Sunday after mass and was won by taking the ball across a parish boundary.

During the s and s, rugby football started to become popular in Ireland. Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of rugby, and the rules of the English Football Association were codified in and distributed widely.

By this time, according to Gaelic football historian Jack Mahon, even in the Irish countryside, caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game", which even allowed tripping.

Association football started to take hold, especially in Ulster , in the s. Limerick was the stronghold of the native game around this time, and the Commercials Club, founded by employees of Cannock's Drapery Store, was one of the first to impose a set of rules, which was adapted by other clubs in the city.

Of all the Irish pastimes the GAA set out to preserve and promote, it is fair to say that Gaelic football was in the worst shape at the time of the association's foundation GAA Museum, Irish forms of football were not formally arranged into an organised playing code by the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA until The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject "foreign" particularly English imports.

The first Gaelic football rules, showing the influence of hurling and a desire to differentiate from association football—for example in their lack of an offside rule —were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on 7 February The rules of the aforementioned Commercials Club became the basis for these official Gaelic Football rules who, unsurprisingly, won the inaugural All-Ireland Senior Football Final representing County Limerick.

By , Wembley Stadium hosted annual exhibition games of Gaelic football in England, before tens of thousands of spectators. Ladies' Gaelic football has become increasingly popular with women since the s.

The relationship between Gaelic football and Australian rules football and the question of whether they have shared origins has been debated.

What then followed is the current International Rules Series between players of both codes and utilizing rules from both codes, which also gives them a chance to represent their country.

The GAA chooses the team to represent Ireland, while the AFL chooses the team to represent Australia and has added a stipulation that each member of their team must have been named an All-Australian at least once.

The two countries take turns hosting the series, and both countries' and sports' respective most prestigious venues — Croke Park and the Melbourne Cricket Ground MCG — have hosted series Tests.

What is known as the Irish experiment also occurred, with Australian rules football clubs recruiting Gaelic football players. Irishmen who have distinguished themselves in both codes include Dublin's Jim Stynes — a minor All-Ireland football champion who became the Brownlow Medallist , a recipient of the Medal of the Order of Australia and a member of Melbourne 's Team of the Century — and Kerry's Tadhg Kennelly , the first man to become both a senior All-Ireland football champion and an AFL Premiership player with Sydney , the Swans' first flag in 72 years.

Positions in Gaelic football are similar to that in other football codes, and comprise one goalkeeper , six backs, two midfielders, and six forwards, with a variable number of substitutes.

A Gaelic pitch is similar in some respects to a rugby pitch but larger. There are H-shaped goalposts at each end, formed by two posts, which are usually 6—7 metres 20—23 feet high, set 6.

A net extending behind the goal is attached to the crossbar and lower goal posts. The same pitch is used for hurling; the GAA, which organises both sports, decided this to facilitate dual usage.

Shorter pitches and smaller goals are used by youth teams. The majority of adult football and all minor and under matches last for 60 minutes, divided into two halves of 30 minutes, with the exception of senior inter-county games, which last for 70 minutes two halves of 35 minutes.

Draws are decided by replays or by playing 20 minutes of extra time two halves of 10 minutes. Juniors have a half of 20 minutes or 25 minutes in some cases.

Half-time lasts for about 5 or 10 minutes. Teams consist of fifteen players [12] a goalkeeper, two corner backs, a full back, two wing backs, a centre back, two mid fielders, two wing forwards, a centre forward, two corner forwards and a full forward plus up to fifteen substitutes , of which six may be used.

As for younger teams or teams that do not have enough players for fifteen-a-side, it is not uncommon to play thirteen-a-side the same positions except without the full back and the full forward.

Each player is numbered 1—15, starting with the goalkeeper , who must wear a jersey colour different from that of his or her teammates. Up to 15 substitutes may be named on the team sheet, number 16 usually being the reserve goalkeeper.

A hand pass is not a punch but rather a strike of the ball with the side of the closed fist, using the knuckle of the thumb. In , the GAA introduced the 'mark' across the board in Gaelic football.

Similar to the mark in Australian rules football , a player who catches the ball from a kick-out is awarded a free kick. The player awarded a 'Mark' shall have the options of a Taking a free kick or b Playing on immediately.

In , additional versions of the Mark came into force in gaelic football. The referee is required to blow the whistle as this occurs, at which point the player has the option to take the Mark, or play-on.

There is also a Defensive Mark , which a defender can get from a long-ball played into him. There are three main types of fouls in Gaelic Football, which can result in the ball being given to the other team, a player being cautioned, a player being removed from the field, or even the game being terminated.

Aggressive fouls are physical or verbal fouls committed by a player against an opponent or the referee. The player can be cautioned shown a yellow card , ordered off the pitch without a substitute red card , [18] or as of 1 January ordered off the pitch with a substitution black card.

The following are considered dissent fouls:. After the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published. However, at the beginning of the fourth meeting, attention was drawn to the recently published Cambridge Rules of The Cambridge rules differed from the draft FA rules in two significant areas; namely running with carrying the ball and hacking kicking opposing players in the shins.

The two contentious FA rules were as follows:. A player shall be entitled to run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal if he makes a fair catch, or catches the ball on the first bound; but in case of a fair catch, if he makes his mark he shall not run.

If any player shall run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal, any player on the opposite side shall be at liberty to charge, hold, trip or hack him, or to wrest the ball from him, but no player shall be held and hacked at the same time.

At the fifth meeting it was proposed that these two rules be removed. Most of the delegates supported this, but F. Campbell , the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected.

He said: "hacking is the true football". However, the motion to ban running with the ball in hand and hacking was carried and Blackheath withdrew from the FA.

After the final meeting on 8 December, the FA published the " Laws of Football ", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association Football.

The term "soccer", in use since the late 19th century, derives from an Oxford University abbreviation of "Association". In Britain , by , there were 49 clubs playing variations of the Rugby school game.

However, there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until , when 21 clubs from London came together to form the Rugby Football Union RFU.

The first official RFU rules were adopted in June They also included the try , where touching the ball over the line allowed an attempt at goal, though drop-goals from marks and general play, and penalty conversions were still the main form of contest.

Rugby football split into Rugby union , Rugby league , American football , and Canadian football. Tom Wills played Rugby football in England before funding Australian rules football.

As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students.

For example, students at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire played a game called Old division football , a variant of the association football codes, as early as the s.

Rules were simple, violence and injury were common. Yale University , under pressure from the city of New Haven , banned the play of all forms of football in , while Harvard University followed suit in A hybrid of the two, known as the "Boston game", was played by a group known as the Oneida Football Club.

The club, considered by some historians as the first formal football club in the United States, was formed in by schoolboys who played the "Boston game" on Boston Common.

The universities of Yale, Princeton then known as the College of New Jersey , Rutgers , and Brown all began playing "kicking" games during this time.

In , Princeton used rules based on those of the English Football Association. In Canada, the first documented football match was a practice game played on 9 November , at University College, University of Toronto approximately yards west of Queen's Park.

One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school.

Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A. Bethune, and Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, Massachusetts, devised rules based on rugby football.

On 6 November , Rutgers faced Princeton in a game that was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used improvised rules.

It is usually regarded as the first game of American intercollegiate football. During the game, the two teams alternated between the rugby-based rules used by McGill and the Boston Game rules used by Harvard.

On 23 November , representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit Convention in Springfield, Massachusetts , agreeing to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union rules, with some variations.

In , Yale coach Walter Camp , who had become a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where the rules were debated and changed, devised a number of major innovations.

Camp's two most important rule changes that diverged the American game from rugby were replacing the scrummage with the line of scrimmage and the establishment of the down-and-distance rules.

President Theodore Roosevelt to hold a meeting with football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton on 9 October , urging them to make drastic changes.

Though it was underutilised for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.

Over the years, Canada absorbed some of the developments in American football in an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game.

In , the Ontario Rugby Football Union adopted the Burnside rules , which implemented the line of scrimmage and down-and-distance system from American football, among others.

In the midth century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid , remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry.

One observer, Father W. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees; and the epic "cross-country game" which took up most of the daylight hours of a Sunday on which it was played, and was won by one team taking the ball across a parish boundary.

By the s, Rugby and Association football had started to become popular in Ireland. Trinity College Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby see the Developments in the s section, above.

The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely. Traditional forms of caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which allowed tripping.

There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA in The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject imported games like Rugby and Association football.

The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on 7 February The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football.

Professionalism had already begun to creep into the various codes of football. In England, by the s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries.

This was not very different from what had occurred ten years earlier in soccer in Northern England but the authorities reacted very differently in the RFU, attempting to alienate the working class support in Northern England.

In , following a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments, which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby, representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union NRFU.

The new body initially permitted only various types of player wage replacements. However, within two years, NRFU players could be paid, but they were required to have a job outside sport.

The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport. This was followed by the replacement of the ruck with the "play-the-ball ruck", which allowed a two-player ruck contest between the tackler at marker and the player tackled.

Mauls were stopped once the ball carrier was held, being replaced by a play-the ball-ruck. Over time, the RFU form of rugby, played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB, became known as rugby union.

The need for a single body to oversee association football had become apparent by the beginning of the 20th century, with the increasing popularity of international fixtures.

The English Football Association had chaired many discussions on setting up an international body, but was perceived as making no progress.

It fell to associations from seven other European countries: France, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland, to form an international association.

Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in , with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players.

In , a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, receiving an enthusiastic response, and professional rugby leagues were launched in Australia the following year.

However, the rules of professional games varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match.

During the second half of the 20th century, the rules changed further. In , rugby league officials borrowed the American football concept of downs : a team was allowed to retain possession of the ball for four tackles rugby union retains the original rule that a player who is tackled and brought to the ground must release the ball immediately.

The maximum number of tackles was later increased to six in , and in rugby league this became known as the six tackle rule.

The laws of rugby union also changed during the 20th century, although less significantly than those of rugby league.

In particular, goals from marks were abolished, kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised, new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or maul , and the lifting of players in line-outs was legalised.

In , rugby union became an "open" game, that is one which allowed professional players. The word football , when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above.

Because of this, much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football , primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world.

Most often, the word "football" is used to refer to the code of football that is considered dominant within a particular region which is Association football in most countries.

So, effectively, what the word "football" means usually depends on where one says it. In each of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, one football code is known solely as "football", while the others generally require a qualifier.

In New Zealand, "football" historically referred to rugby union , but more recently may be used unqualified to refer to association football.

The sport meant by the word "football" in Australia is either Australian rules football or rugby league , depending on local popularity which largely conforms to the Barassi Line.

Several of the football codes are the most popular team sports in the world. Rugby union is the most popular sport in New Zealand and Polynesia.

These codes have in common the prohibition of the use of hands by all players except the goalkeeper, though outfield players can "throw-in" the ball when it goes out of play , unlike other codes where carrying or handling the ball by all players is allowed.

The hockey game bandy has rules partly based on the association football rules and is sometimes nicknamed as 'winter football'.

These codes have in common the ability of players to carry the ball with their hands, and to throw it to teammates, unlike association football where the use of hands during play is prohibited by anyone except the goal keeper.

They also feature various methods of scoring based upon whether the ball is carried into the goal area, or kicked above the goalposts.

These codes have in common the absence of an offside rule, the prohibition of continuous carrying of the ball requiring a periodic bounce or solo toe-kick , depending on the code while running, handpassing by punching or tapping the ball rather than throwing it, and other traditions.

Games still played at UK public independent schools:. Note: although similar to football and volleyball in some aspects, Sepak takraw has ancient origins and cannot be considered a hybrid game.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the overall concept of games called football. For the balls themselves, see Football ball.

For specific versions of the game and other uses of the term, see Football disambiguation. Group of related team sports.

Several codes of football. Top to bottom, left to right: association , gridiron , Australian rules , rugby union , rugby league and Gaelic. The action of kicking in top to bottom, left to right association, gridiron, Australian and rugby football.

Main article: Football word. See also: Episkyros and Cuju. Further information: Medieval football. Main article: Calcio Fiorentino. Main article: Attempts to ban football games.

Main article: English public school football games. Main article: Oldest football clubs. Sheffield F. Main article: Oldest football competitions.

Main article: Football ball. Main article: Passing association football. Main article: Cambridge rules.

Main article: Sheffield rules. Main article: Australian rules football. See also: Origins of Australian rules football.

Main article: The Football Association. The first football international, Scotland versus England. Once kept by the Rugby Football Union as an early example of rugby football.

Main article: History of rugby union. Main article: History of Gaelic football. Further information: History of rugby league. Further information: Football word.

Main article: Variants of association football. See also: Comparison of American football and rugby league , Comparison of American football and rugby union , Comparison of Canadian and American football , and Comparison of rugby league and rugby union.

See also: Comparison of Australian rules football and Gaelic football. Football portal. Journal of Sports Sciences. Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 17 November Archived from the original on 22 September Retrieved 15 June Bangkok Post.

Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 29 April Rugby Football History. Archived from the original on 23 December Retrieved 11 January The Sports Historian.

The International Journal of the History of Sport. Sports Geography. Science and Football Second ed. Abingdon: Routledge. The Football Association.

Archived from the original on 10 September Retrieved 27 September Etymology Online. Archived from the original on 22 December Retrieved 14 December Archived from the original on 28 October Retrieved 1 November Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity.

Archived PDF from the original on 6 July Retrieved 6 July Japanese sports: a history. University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved 8 July Archived from the original on 1 July Violence in Early Modern Europe — Cambridge University Press.

Le sport et les jeux d'exercice dans l'ancienne France. Sports in the Western World. University of Illinois Press.

Archived from the original on 29 July Retrieved 16 April Manchester University Press. Archived from the original on 28 June Retrieved 19 June Project Gutenberg.

Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 3 October Special Teams treten nur in besonderen Spielsituationen an, meist wenn der Ball gekickt werden soll, also wenn eine Mannschaft durch den Kicker K den Kickoff durchführt, ein Field Goal versucht oder der Punter P punten will.

Da diese weiter weg als ein Quarterback stehen, wird hierfür ein längerer Snap durch den Center benötigt, weshalb hierbei ein Spezial-Center, der sogenannte Long Snapper LS , zum Zuge kommt.

Beim Kickoff wird der Ball von der Mitte der eigenen Yard-Linie bei Amateurligen oft von der 35 getreten, und ein gegnerischer Ballempfänger Kickoff-Returner versucht, den Ball so weit wie möglich zurückzutragen.

In günstigen Situationen z. Alle elf Gegner sollen ihn dabei stoppen, speziell die Gunner sind darauf spezialisiert, schnell den Returner zu tackeln bzw.

Dann darf er vom Gegner nach dem Fang nicht angegriffen werden, kann aber keinen weiteren Raumgewinn erzielen. Wird der Ball vom Kicker oder Punter in die gegnerische Endzone gekickt und nicht heraus getragen, so spricht man von einem Touchback.

Auch auf der Seite des nicht kickenden Teams gibt es Spezialisten. So gehen etwa die Kick Blocker bzw.

Punt Blocker aggressiv auf den Kicker bzw. Punter während der Trittbewegung drauf und versuchen, den anfliegenden Football zu blocken.

Aufgrund der Komplexität des American Footballs wird eine Footballmannschaft von mehreren Trainern gecoacht. Der Head Coach ist der Oberste in der Trainerhierarchie.

Er ist für die Betreuung der Mannschaft zuständig und überwacht sowohl das Training als auch alle Entscheidungen in einem Spiel.

Zusätzlich ist er für die Entwicklung der Spielzüge verantwortlich. Zusätzlich kann es weitere Trainer geben, beispielsweise für bestimmte Positionen, körperliche Leistungsfähigkeit oder koordinative Fähigkeiten.

Amateurmannschaften haben meistens drei bis fünf Trainer, semi- professionelle Mannschaften über zehn Trainer.

Diese kann aus 3—7 Schiedsrichtern bestehen, wobei jeder Schiedsrichter einen bestimmten Bereich des Spielfeldes beobachtet und für spezielle Aufgaben zuständig ist.

Er positioniert sich im Backfield der Offense und richtet über Downs und Strafen. Weitere Schiedsrichter sind der Umpire , der sich jeweils zwischen oder hinter den Linebackers aufstellt und meistens den Ball sichert und für den nächsten Spielzug positioniert.

Je nach Crewstärke sind unterschiedliche Schiedsrichter für die offizielle Spielzeit zuständig: in einer 3er Crew der Umpire, in einer 4er der Line Judge, in einer 5er und 7er Crew der Back Judge sowie in einer 6er der Side Judge.

In den Profiligen ist diese Aufgabenverteilung mitunter abweichend. Die verschiedenen Konzepte können miteinander kombiniert werden.

Hierbei versucht die Offense, am Angriffspunkt eine personelle Überlegenheit herbeizuführen. Das Quickness Running Game basiert auf dem Versuch, den Angriffspunkt so schnell zu erreichen, dass der Defense keine Zeit für eine optimale Reaktion bleibt.

Drei Yards Raumgewinn gelten bereits als voller Erfolg. Zusätzlich wird das Laufspiel nach der Art der Blocksetzung unterschieden.

Bei Zone Runs und ähnlichen Spielzügen werden nicht direkt einzelne Gegenspieler angegriffen. Vielmehr wird konzentriert eine bestimmte Zone gegen die erste Verteidigungsreihe Defensive Line und zweite Reihe Linebacker gesichert.

Hinsichtlich des Gelingens eines solchen Spielzugs trägt der balltragende Runningback mehr Verantwortung als bei einem Standardlaufspiel. Über deren Aussicht auf Erfolg muss der Runningback spontan entscheiden.

Beim Inside Zone Play bleibt der Runningback zwischen den beiden Tackles, was ihm erlaubt, auch die Seite zu wechseln, falls sich dort eine Lücke öffnet.

Unterscheidungskriterium ist dabei die Bewegung des Quarterbacks. Aus dieser Position kann er üblicherweise das gesamte Spielfeld überblicken. Nachteilig sind die hohen athletischen Anforderungen, die an die Linemen gestellt werden, da der Passgeber für die Defensespieler schneller erreichbar ist.

Da diese der Offense das Überraschungsmoment nimmt, wird sie meist nur eingesetzt, wenn ersichtlich ist, das ein Passspielzug folgt.

Geschieht dies ohne jede Verzögerung, spricht man vom Sprint Out, vollführt er zuvor andere Bewegungsabläufe, so spricht man vom Roll Out.

Der Quarterback sollte hierbei jedoch ein guter Sprinter sein. Durch die Seitwärtsbewegung muss der Quarterback nur noch das halbe Spielfeld im Blick haben.

Dies vereinfacht zwar die Beobachtung der Verteidigung, verringert aber die Anzahl der anspielbaren Passempfänger, da es ein sehr hohes Risiko bergen würde, einen Pass auf die andere Spielfeldseite gegen die Laufrichtung zu werfen.

Dies soll die Verteidiger zu einer verzögerten Reaktion auf den Pass bewegen. Viele Spielzüge sind darauf ausgelegt, die Verteidigung zu verwirren.

Bei Fakes wird eine Spielzugart z. Fakes machen einen nicht unbedeutenden Teil der Taktiklastigkeit des Spieles aus. Einige Ausnahmen:.

Dabei versucht die Defense Druck auf den Quarterback auszuüben, indem ein oder mehrere Spieler die Offense-Line durchbrechen bzw.

Der blitzende Spieler kann ein Linebacker oder ein Cornerback sein, manchmal sogar ein Safety. Erkennt der Quarterback, woher der Blitz kommt, hat er eine geschwächte Stelle der Verteidigung vor sich.

Zum Teil werden Blitzes auch nur angetäuscht, um den Quarterback zu verunsichern oder ihn zu einer schlechten Entscheidung zu verleiten.

Die D-Line-Spieler und Linebacker stellen sich in die für ihre Formation gewöhnlichen Positionen auf, tauschen aber ihre Assignments Aufgaben nach dem Snap mit dem Nebenmann oder mit einem vorher abgesprochenen Partner.

So greift z. Das soll Abstimmungsschwierigkeiten innerhalb der gegnerischen Offensive Line hervorrufen.

Ein ähnliches Ziel verfolgen die D-Line Shifts. Das kann mehrere Wirkungen haben. Erstens kann es die Offensive Line durcheinander bringen, weil die geplanten Blockschemata evtl.

Zweitens zwingt es den Quarterback zu möglichen Audibles , die den Spielzug ändern, wenn er sieht, dass z. Das wiederum verrät der Defense etwas über den geplanten Spielzug.

Die Rückennummern haben üblicherweise eine feste Zuteilung zu den Positionen, nicht zuletzt zur Orientierung der Schiedsrichter. Fumble berühren bzw.

Des Weiteren gibt es in vielen Teams so genannte retired numbers zurückgezogene Nummern. Seit werden alle vier Jahre Weltmeisterschaften ausgetragen.

American Football ist vor allem in Nordamerika verbreitet. NAIA organisiert sind. Die mehreren hundert Mannschaften in den oberen Ligen des College Football spielen jeden Herbst etwa zwölf Spiele innerhalb ihrer jeweiligen Gruppe.

Seit den ern wird auch American Football in der Schweiz gespielt. Unterhalb der GFL befindet sich eine ebenso zweigeteilte 2.

Ebenso gibt es umfangreichen Spielbetrieb im Jugendbereich. Seit Ende der er Jahre wird Football auch auf Hochschulebene gespielt.

Das Finale ist der jährlich ausgetragene Hochschulbowl. Kurz darauf treffen sich die besten Hochschulspieler in der universitären Nationalmannschaft, den GERmaniacs.

Zur Saison wurden die europäischen Wettbewerbe neu organisiert, sodass sich seitdem die sechs besten Teams Europas in der Big6 European Football League treffen.

Als weiterer Wettbewerb wurde der EFL Bowl eingeführt, in dem die besten nicht in der Big6 vertretenen Vereinsmannschaften aufeinander treffen.

Diese wurde eingestellt. Alle vier Jahre gibt es eine American-Football-Europameisterschaft , welche zuletzt in Finnland stattfand. American Football ist in der Volksrepublik China nicht populär.

Es war das erste internationale Footballturnier in China. Der Titel dieses Artikels ist mehrdeutig. Weitere Bedeutungen sind unter American Football Begriffsklärung aufgeführt.

Spielerpositionen im American Football. Siehe auch : Europäische Landesmeisterschaften im American Football.

Kategorien : Torspiel American Football Mannschaftssportart. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte.

3 comments

Hinterlasse eine Antwort

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind markiert *